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Curriculum development planning – Models

  1. Stenhouses’s Process of Model

LAWRENCE STENHOUSES (1975) formulated the process model. This is input model, i.e., emphasized on learning experience or the process of education.

  • He believed that it was possible to organize curriculum without having to specify in advance the expected behavioral change in students.
  • According to him, the content of curriculum can be selected on the basis that it is worthwhile in itself and not merely as the means to achieve behavioral objective.
  • Similarly, teaching methods and learning experiences can be selected in terms of the worthwhile as learning activities.
  • Teachers role to appraise the student work with emphasize in developing self appraisal quality among students.
  • In this model, the teacher commitment to professional development is vital.
  • Teachers need to see themselves as learners rather than as experts and to be continually striving to improve their performance and judgement.
  1. Lawton’s Cultural Analysis model

Lawton’s model (1983) was a reaction against what he saw as the dangers of the behavioral objectives models. This model proposes a curriculum planned on the technique of cultural analysis. Culture is defined as the whole way of life of society and the most important aspects of culture. Cultural analysis is the process by which a selection is made from the culture and in terms of curriculum planning. Lawton suggests cultural analysis will ask:

  • What kind of society already exists?
  • In what ways is it developing?
  • How do its members appear to want it to develop?
  • What kinds of values and principles will be involved in deciding on 3, on the educational means of achievements 3?

Lawton offers a five –stage model for this analysis

  • Cultural invariants: This examines all the aspects that human societies have in common, such as economic and model aspects, beliefs and other system.
  • Cultural variables: Involves analyzing the differences between cultures in each of the system.
  • Selection from the culture: This stage consists of the cultural analysis of the system with the existing school curriculum.
  • Psychological questions and theories: This stage is not in direct continuity with the previous stages, but is seen as an important consideration for any curriculum development
  • Curriculum organization: Inn this final stage the curriculum can now be planned on the basis of the cultural analysis carried out in the previous stages, bearing in mind the important psychological questions and theories that influence learning and instruction.

Lawton’s model attempts to apply a system of analysis to the problem of curriculum content and applies to the curriculum for children; it is useful way of thinking about curriculum design in nursing.

  1. Beattie’s four fold model

Beattie (1987) suggest that there are four fundamental approaches in relation to the task of planning a curriculum for nursing. They are:

  1. The curriculum as a map of key subject: This approach consists of mapping out the key subjects in nursing curriculum.
  2. The curriculum as a schedule of basic skills: This approach emphasis the explicit specification of basic skills of nursing practice.
  3. The curriculum as a portfolio of meaningful personal experiences: This approach places the students at the centre of thing by organizing the curriculum around their interests and experiences.
  4. The curriculum as an agenda of important cultural issues: This approach avoids giving detailed subjects matter, focusing instead on controversial issues and cultural issues.