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Eye Disorder – Subconjunctival haemorrhage

A subconjunctival hemorrhage (or subconjunctival haemorrhage) also known as hyposphagma, is bleeding underneath the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva contains many small, fragile blood vessels that are easily ruptured or broken. When this happens, blood leaks into the space between the conjunctiva and sclera.

Whereas a bruise typically appears black or blue underneath the skin, a subconjunctival hemorrhage initially appears bright red underneath the transparent conjunctiva. Later the hemorrhage may spread and become green or yellow, like a bruise. Usually this disappears within 2 weeks.

Although its appearance may be alarming, a subconjunctival hemorrhage is generally a painless and harmless condition; however, it may be associated with high blood pressure, trauma to the eye, or a base of skull fracture if there is no posterior border of the hemorrhage visible.

CAUSES

  • Blood dyscrasia (rare)
  • Blood thinners, such as ginger, capsaicin, ginseng, garlic, aspirin, or Herba if taken in high doses or combined. These can also make the vessels in the eye more susceptible to the pressure.
  • Diving accidents
  • Severe hypertension
  • LASIK
  • Leptospirosis
  • Minor eye trauma
  • Spontaneously with increased venous pressure
  • Choking
  • Coughing
  • Pulling extreme g-forces
  • Sneezing
  • Straining
  • Strenuous Exercising
  • Vomiting
  • Prolonged stress
  • Severe thoracic trauma, leading to increased pressure in the extremities, including around the eyes.

Subconjunctival hemorrhages in infants may be associated with scurvy (a vitamin C deficiency), abuse or traumatic asphyxia syndrome.

TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT

A subconjunctival hemorrhage is typically a self-limiting condition that requires no treatment in the absence of infection or significant trauma. The elective use of aspirin and NSAIDs is typically discouraged.

A common symptom of a subconjunctival hemorrhage, itchy eyes, is often treated by applying eye drops or artificial tears to the affected eye(s).