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Range of motion exercises – Active & Passive


Exercise is any physical activity involving muscles that elevates the heart rate above resting levels.Exercise reduces joint pain and stiffness and increases the flexibility , muscle strength and endurancs. It also helps with weight reduction and contributes to an improved sense of well being.



  • To maintain joint mobility .
  • To prevent contracture, atony and mucsle atrophy.
  • To stimulate blood circulation ,preventing thrombus and embolus formation.
  • To increase tolerance for more activity.
  • To maintain and build muscle strength.



  • A physician or other health care provider should be consulted before initiating an exercise program.
  • Exercise should not performed if the joints are swollen or inflamed or if there has been injury to the musculoskeletal system in the vicinity of the joint.


  • PASSIVE:these exercises are carried out by the nurse ,without assisstance from the patient. Passive exercises will not preserve muscle mass or bone meneralization because there is no voluntary contraction or tention on bones.
  • ACTIVE ASSISTIVE: these exercises are performed by the patient with assistance from the nurse.
  • ACTIVE: active exercises are performed by the patient , without assistance to increase muscle strength.
  • RESISTIVE: these are active exercises performed by the patient ,by pulling or pushing against an opposing force.
  • ISOMETRIC: these exercises are performed by the patient by contracting and relaxing muscles while keeping the part in a fixed position.


  • FLEXION:It is the state of being bent . The cervical spine is flexed when the chin is moved towards the chest.
  • EXTENTION: The state of being in a straight line. The cervical spine is extented when the head is held straight.
  • HYPEREXTENTION: The state of exaggerated extention. The cervical spine is hyperextended when the person looks overhead.
  • ADDUCTION: lateral movement of the body part toward the middle line of the body.
  • ABDUCTION: lateral movement of the body part away from the middle line of the body.
  • ROTATION: turning of the body part around the axis .
  • CIRCUMDUCTION: rotating an extrimity in a complete circle . circumduction is a combination of adduction, abduction , extention and flextion.
  • SUPINATION: the palm or sole is rotated in an upward position.
  • PRONATION : the palm or sole is rotated in an Downward position.



  • Protrusion:e g. push out lower jaw.
  • Retrusion: eg. tuck in lower jaw.
  • Lateral motion: eg. slide jaw from side to side.
  • Flexion: rest chin on the chest,raise straight arm forward to a position above the head, bend wrist so fingers move towards inner aspact of forearm ,make a fist , move a thumb towards palmer surface of the hand , move straight leg forwad and upward, bend knee to bring heel back towards thigh,curve toes downwards.
  • Extention: e.g. return head to mid line , return straight arm forward and down to side of the body, straighten lower arm forward and downward,straighten to same plane as arm,straighten finger,move thumb away from hand,move leg back beside the other leg,straighten each leg placing foot beside other foot, straighten toes.
  • Hyperextension:.e.g tilt head back , move straight arm behind body,bend wrist so fingers move back as far as possible, bend fingers as far as possible,move leg behind body .
  • Lateral flexion:e.g move head to touch ear to shoulder
  • Rotation : e.g turn head to look to side
  • External rotation : g bent arm lateral parllel to floor palm down, rotate shoulder so fingers piont up,turn foot and leg outward.
  • Internal rotation:e.g bent arm lateral parllel to floor palm down, rotate shoulder so fingers piont down , turn foot and leg inward .
  • Roation for supination:e.g elbow bent,turn hand and for arm so palm is facing uppward.
  • Rotation for pronation:e.g elbow bent,turn hand and for arm so palm is facing downward.
  • Abduction : e.g move straight arm laterally,palm facing away from head ,spread fingers apart ,move thumb laterally, move leg lateraally from midline,spread toes apart .
  • Adduction : e.g move straight arm downward laterally,bring fingers together,move thumb back to hand, back towards midline bring toes together
  • Circumduction : e.g move straight straight arm in a full circle,move leg back ward in a circle.
  • Radial flexion(abduction) : e.g bend wrist laterally toward thumb.
  • Ulner fraction(adduction) : e.g bend wrist laterally away from thumb.
  • Planter flexion: e.g point toes downwards.
  • Dorsiflexion : e.g point toes upwards.
  • Opposition : e.g touch thumb to tip of each finger of same hand.
  • Eversion : e.g turn soul of the foot laterally.
  • Inversion : e.g turn soul of foot medialy.


Make theĀ  patient comfotable by giving proper position and comfort devices.