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Research Terminology-population, variable, hypothesis,pilot study

Research Terminology

žResearch: is an organized investigation of a problem or it is an attempt to gain solution to a problem(By APHA)

ž Population

is any group of individuals that have one or more characteristics in common that are of interest to the researcher.

žTarget population: The entire population in which researchers are interested and to which research findings are to be generalized.

žAccessible population: The aggregate of cases that conform to designated inclusion or exclusion criteria and that are accessible as subject of study.

žVariable

is an measurable or potentially measurable component of an object or event that may fluctuate in quantity or quality or it may be different in different individuals. E.g age, weight, height, pulse rates etc.

žIndependent variable: Variable manipulated by the researcher in order to study the its effect upon dependent variable.

žDependent variable: is that phenomenon which can not be manipulated but is accepted as it occurs.

žExtraneous variables: All the variable present in the research environment especially in human subject that may interfere the research findings.

žOperational Definitions

It is important to define all unusual terms that could be misinterpreted.

žAssumptions

A basic principle that is accepted as being true based on logic or reason but without proof or verification.

žHypothesis

is an assumption statement about the relationship between two or more variables that suggest an answer to research question.

žLiterature Review

A critical summary or research on a topic of interest, generally prepared to put a research problem in context or to identify the gaps and weaknesses in prior studies so as to justify a new investigation.

žConcept

A word picture or mental idea of a phenomenon. Concepts are words or terms that symbolize some aspect of reality. Concepts are building blocks of theory.

žConceptual Model or Framework

It is the interrelated concept or abstraction assembled together in a rational scheme by the virtue of their relevance to a common theme.

žMeaning of conceptual framework-  “The conceptual framework presents meaningful relationships among concepts”.

žPilot Study

It is the small preliminary investigation of same general characters as the major study which is designed to acquaint the researcher with the problems that can be corrected in preparation for large research project.

žSample

subset of population or small proportion of population.

žSubject

An individual who participate & provides data in the study.

žData

The pieces of information which is obtained in the course of study.

žItem

A single question on a test or questionnaire

žBias

An influence that produce a distortion in the result of study.

žValidity

refers to whether a measurement instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.

žReliability

refers to accuracy or inaccuracy rate in measurement device.

žManipulation

an intervention or treatment introduced by the researcher in an experimental or quassi experimental study.

žDelimitations

these are the boundaries of the study.

žLimitations

These are the conditions beyond the control of research that may place restrictions on conclusions of the study and their application to other situations.

žAbstract

A brief description of a complete or proposed study.