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Aortic aneurysm- Abdominal aneurysm, management, prognosis, complications

ABDOMINAL ANEURYSM CLINICAL FEATURES The symptoms of rupture include Pain in the abdomen or back — severe, sudden, persistent, or constant. The pain may radiate to the groin, buttocks, or legs. Clammy skin Nausea and vomiting Tachycardia Shock INVESTIGATIONS Abdominal...

Aortic aneurysm- Thoracic aneurysm, etiology, patho, management

The aorta is the artery in human body. It conduct blood to various parts of the body from left ventricle. Aorta can be divided into three parts: The first part moves upwards towards the head. It is called the ascending aorta. The middle part...

Myocardial Infarction- Intracoronary stents, CABG, Laser ablation, Nursing management, complications

Intracoronary stents Several different stent designs are available, but most are balloon –expandable or self expandables tubes that when placed in a coronary artery act as a mechanical scaffold to reopen the blocked artery. Coronary artery...

Myocardial Infarction- Medical Surgical management, thrombolytics, ACE-I, PTCA, Angioplasty

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT PHARMACOLOGIC THERAPY The patient with an acute MI receives the same medications as the patient with unstable angina, with the possible additions of thrombolytics, analgesics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Thrombolytics Indications •...

Myocardial Infarction- Definition, etiology, pathophysiology, sign and symptoms, diagnosis

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION DEFINITION MI refers to the process by which areas of myocardial cells in the heart are permanently destroyed. ETIOLOGY Atherosclerosis and occlusion of an artery by an embolus or thrombus. Vasospasm (sudden constriction...

Angina Pectoris- aspirin, heparin, nursing management, nursing assessment

Medical management cont… Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications Aspirin prevents platelet activation. A 160- to 325-mg dose of aspirin should be given as soon as diagnosis is made and then continued with 81 to 325 mg daily. Heparin Unfractionated...

Angina Pectoris- definition, etiology, types, sign and symptoms, diagnosis, medical management, pharmacotherapy

ANGINA PECTORIS DEFINITION The word ‘angina’ has been derived from Latin word meaning “to choke”. Angina pectoris is a clinical syndrome usually characterized by episodes or paroxysms of pain or pressure in the anterior chest. The cause...

Coronary Atherosclerosis- Diagnosis, prevention, management

DIAGNOSIS Symptoms-e.g chest pain on exertion, shortness of breath Blood tests Electrocardiogram Echocardiogram Imaging studies (e.g thallium scans and angiograms) PREVENTION Four modifiable risk factors—cholesterol abnormalities, cigarette...

Coronary Artery Disease- Definition, incidence, Coronary Atherosclerosis, risk factors, sign and symptoms

Coronary Artery Disease Normal functioning of the heart is based on balance between oxygen supply and oxygen demand. To function as an effective pump, the heart muscle must be adequately supplied with blood from the coronary arteries. However...

Valvular Heart Disease – Nursing Management and Home Care

Pre-operative Nursing diagnosis: Activity intolerance related to insufficient oxygenation secondary to decreased cardiac output and pulmonary congestion . Goal: Achieves optimal level of activity. Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective cardiopulmonary...